Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim.
In the 20th century, a segment of the Orthodox population (as represented by the World Agudath Israel movement) disagreed with Modern Orthodoxy and took a stricter approach.
Such rabbis viewed innovations and modifications within Jewish law and customs with extreme care and caution.
This form of Judaism may be referred to as Haredi Judaism or "Ultra-Orthodox Judaism".
According to the New Jersey Press Association, several media entities refrain from using the term "ultra-Orthodox", including the Religion Newswriters Association; JTA, the global Jewish news service; and the Star-Ledger, New Jersey’s largest daily newspaper.
Several local Jewish papers, including New York's Jewish Week and Philadelphia's Jewish Exponent have also dropped use of the term.
According to Shammai Engelmayer, spiritual leader of Temple Israel Community Center in Cliffside Park and former executive editor of Jewish Week, this leaves "Orthodox" as "an umbrella term that designates a very widely disparate group of people very loosely tied together by some core beliefs." They consider all non-Orthodox Jewish movements to be unacceptable deviations from authentic Judaism; both because of other denominations' doubt concerning the verbal revelation of Written and Oral Torah, and because of their rejection of halakhic precedent as binding.As such, Orthodox Jewish groups characterize non-Orthodox forms of Judaism as heretical.Orthodox Judaism affirms monotheism, or the belief in one God.Among the in-depth explanations of that belief are Maimonidean rationalism, Kabbalistic mysticism, and Hasidic philosophy.A few affirm self-limited omniscience (the theology elucidated by Gersonides in The Wars of the Lord.) Orthodox Judaism maintains the historical understanding of Jewish identity.A Jew is someone who was born to a Jewish mother, or who converts to Judaism in accordance with Jewish law and tradition.